Substance Abuse in the Elderly
Substance abuse issues among the elderly represent a growing public health concern. Researchers say that close to three million Americans aged 55 and older suffer from alcohol abuse — and this figure is expected to reach nearly six million by 2020.
Moreover, the rate of illicit drug abuse in adults over 50 more has more than doubled between 2002 and 2013.
Many of the older Americans suffering from substance abuse are retired. But new research suggests it is not retirement alone that leads to drug and alcohol abuse.
A comprehensive 10-year study discovers substance abuse is associated with a host of circumstances surrounding leaving the work force — a factor that often coincides with painful later-life events such as the death of spouses and friends.
In the study, Drs. Peter A. Bamberger of Tel Aviv University and Samuel B. Bacharach of Cornell University discovered adults are often ill-prepared to deal with the cascade of changes that may occur during older age.
They found that older adults often lack the skills required to cope with the sudden vacuum produced by retirement as well as events common to later life.
Events such as deteriorating health and the death of spouses and friends are often a part of the aging experience. The research also pointed to the impact of circumstances and conditions of retirement on feelings of depression, purposelessness, and financial strain — which are known to lead to substance abuse.
“We found that the conditions under which people retired, whether they were pushed into it or it was something expected, which they planned for, had great bearing on alcohol and drug habits,” said Bamberger.
“The worst combination we found was among people who took early retirement from jobs they loved because they were terrified their companies were going under. Among all groups studied, this one exhibited the highest incidence of substance abuse.
“Our second major finding was that the conditions experienced once in retirement influenced alcohol and drug habits,” Bamberger continued.
“Even if an individual plans for retirement, he/she might not fully grasp the changes that must be made to his/her lifestyle. As a result, many people experience serious financial straits. Feeling unstable, lonely, and depressed, it isn’t surprising perhaps — but it is unfortunate — that many retirees look to alcohol or drugs for comfort.”
The study, conducted as an annual phone-based survey of 1,200 service, construction, and manufacturing workers aged 52-75, also found that retirement can cause marital strain, and this too may precipitate or exacerbate substance misuse or abuse.
“Financial strain and marital strain, both potential consequences of retirement, elicited problems with sleep. This in particular explained much of males’ misuse of alcohol,” said Bamberger.
Investigators say that knowledge of potential problems can lead to timely interventions that can mitigate stress and improve quality of life.
Actions to prevent retirees from bottoming out include screening and brief interventions aimed at identifying behavioral changes that could lead to substance abuse.
“Sometimes awareness alone is enough to bring about positive change,” said Bamberger.
“Even short phone calls or brief Internet-based feedback can be so instrumental. The other way of reversing this trend is to provide ways of coping with the stresses of retirement. Retirement groups and mentors are often able to pick up on signs of deterioration before they become a problem.”